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River are important source of biodiversity which provide favorable environment for numbers of organism including plankton. The diversity of plankton species is also connected to the water quality. The purpose of this study was to determine the abundance of plankton in the Burai river of Ogan Ilir regency, South Sumatera. This present study was conducted using a purposive random sampling on 3 stations. Plankton sampling was taken by filtering water samples as much as 50 liters and then analysed to be classified and identified by identification book. The diversity of identified plankton was measured by Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index (H), Simpson Dominance Index (C), and Plankton Abundance Index. The results showed that there were six classes of plankton consisting of 15 genera Fragielaria, Synedra, Eunotia, Diatom, Fustulia, Oedogonium, Gonium, Chaetophora, Microspora, Allona, Neuplius, Lyngbya, Spirulina, Cyclotella and Dismidium. The value of diversity at point 1 was 1.75 categorised as medium, point 2 was 3.5 categorised as high, point 3 was 0.75 categorised as medium. The diversity value of three points is known to be low in population.
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